Liberty Reserve Accused of Laundering Billions Through Virtual Currencies

May 29, 2013

The Wall Street Journal on May 28, 2013 released the following press release:

U.S. Says Firm Laundered Billions

Digital-Currency Group Is Accused of Moving Illicit Cash for Hackers, Drug Dealers and Others

By REED ALBERGOTTI And JEFFREY SPARSHOTT

The money was virtual, but prosecutors say the crime was real.

Officials brought charges against a group of men who allegedly manufactured an Internet-based currency to launder about $6 billion in ill-gotten gains, a sign of authorities’ rising concern with digital cash.

The charges, in an indictment unsealed Tuesday, describe a complex online system set up by a Costa Rica-based organization called Liberty Reserve. The system allegedly was designed to give criminals a way to move money earned from credit-card fraud, online Ponzi schemes, child pornography and other crimes without being detected by law enforcement.

Liberty Reserve, which was incorporated in 2006, was a “bank of choice for the criminal underworld,” according to the indictment, which said the operation allegedly laundered the money through 55 million transactions before it was shut down earlier this month. The company has about one million users world-wide, including about 200,000 people in the U.S., according to prosecutors. They called the plot one of the largest money-laundering operations ever uncovered.

A spokesman for Liberty Reserve couldn’t immediately be reached for comment. Prosecutors said Tuesday that they arrested five of the seven men charged in the indictment Friday in Spain, Costa Rica and Brooklyn, N.Y., and charged them with operating an unlicensed money-transmitting business. The officials said they plan to seek extradition of those arrested abroad, and that the two remaining men are at large.

The indictment against Liberty Reserve comes amid a concerted effort by Washington to police the nascent world of virtual currencies and ensure operators comply with U.S. law.

On Tuesday, in the first use of the 2001 Patriot Act against a virtual currency, the Treasury Department invoked a section of the law to choke off Liberty Reserve from the U.S. financial system. The Treasury’s proposal would prohibit U.S. financial institutions from opening or maintaining accounts for foreign banks that process transactions for Liberty Reserve and require special steps to guard against any transactions involving it.

Virtual currencies, most notably bitcoin, still account for only a tiny fraction of global transactions, but they are being embraced by some Internet merchants and are used in a host of legitimate transactions—for example, Web services and online-dating sites.

Law-enforcement officials are concerned about criminals’ ability to move around money outside the regulated world of banks and traditional money-moving services such as Western Union. Officials recently warned that digital currency exchanges should follow traditional anti-money-laundering rules.

The rise of virtual currencies has been exemplified by bitcoin, which lets Internet users create new money by solving complex math problems. The currency, which launched in 2009 and has gone through some wild spikes in value this spring, has attracted the attention of established companies and venture capitalists alike.

Tuesday’s case doesn’t involve bitcoin, though the virtual-cash community was watching developments closely.

“I think it is just another giant, flashing warning light to bitcoin exchanges: If you’re not compliant, there are some serious risks, both at the federal and state levels,” said Patrick Murck, legal counsel for the Bitcoin Foundation, a trade group that promotes bitcoin software and security standards.

Preet Bharara, the Manhattan U.S. attorney, said at a news conference Tuesday that he believed “virtually all” of Liberty Reserve’s customers used it for criminal purposes, though he said legitimate users can seek to recover funds.

Mr. Bharara didn’t give details on the alleged criminals but said the investigation was continuing. “There’s more to come,” he said Tuesday, adding that the case has so far involved seizing $25 million dollars in 45 bank accounts around the world.

Prosecutors allege Liberty Reserve facilitated a range of criminal activity by allowing alleged criminals to conduct transactions using its digital currency, “LR.” The system is opaque, and Liberty Reserve deliberately kept the users anonymous and untraceable, prosecutors said.

A transaction would start with one person opening a Liberty Reserve account using a false name and address, including what prosecutors said were blatant criminal monikers such as “Russia Hackers” or “Hacker Account.”

That person would wire real currency such as dollars to approved third-party currency exchangers in countries including Russia and Nigeria. The exchangers would convert the dollars into LRs and deposit them into the person’s Liberty Reserve account.

From there, a criminal could buy narcotics, stolen credit-card numbers or other goods by transferring the LRs to another person’s Liberty Reserve account. The recipient of the LRs could go to another unregulated currency exchanger and convert the LRs back into dollars.

Liberty Reserve charged a 1% fee for LR currency transfers and an additional “privacy fee” of 75 cents per transaction to hide Liberty Reserve account numbers, making the transfer virtually untraceable.

Liberty Reserve made an appearance in a criminal case earlier this month. Federal prosecutors in Brooklyn, N.Y., accused eight people of stealing about $45 million from automated-teller machines throughout New York City using stolen prepaid debit-card numbers. Prosecutors said at least one of the men used an account at the online-currency operator to transfer some of the allegedly stolen funds.

James T. Hayes Jr., special agent-in-charge of the New York field office of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Homeland Security Investigations, said his agency became aware of possible wrongdoing at Liberty Reserve in 2010 and teamed up with the Internal Revenue Service to investigate the matter.

The indictment described how two of Liberty’s founders, Arthur Budovsky and Vladimir Kats, were convicted in 2006 in New York for operating Gold Age Inc. as an unlicensed money-transmitting business.

Lawyers for Mr. Budovsky and the other defendants named in the indictment couldn’t immediately be reached for comment. A lawyer for Mr. Kats declined to comment.

The indictment said Liberty Reserve also caught the attention of Costa Rican regulators in 2009, forcing the company to allegedly set up a fake compliance system. In late 2011, the Treasury Department warned financial institutions about the risks of doing business with Liberty Reserve.

In an Internet chat-room exchange included in the indictment, one defendant allegedly said he knew the company’s activities were “illegal” and said “everyone,” including the U.S. Department of Justice, knows Liberty Reserve “is a money-laundering operation that hackers use.”

About two weeks after the Treasury’s warning note, Liberty Reserve “went underground,” the indictment says, and continued to operate in Costa Rica using a “stripped-down staff working out of an office space held in the name of shell companies.” The defendants also allegedly tried soon after to drain their bank accounts.”

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Criminal Defense Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition Defense, OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal, International Criminal Court Defense, and US Seizure of Non-Resident, Foreign-Owned Assets. Because we have experience dealing with INTERPOL, our firm understands the inter-relationship that INTERPOL’s “Red Notice” brings to this equation.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.


Federal Child Pornography Charges Against Vt. Teacher Are Dropped; No Evidence He Knew Images Were on Computer

September 1, 2012

The Republic on September 1, 2012 released the following:

“THE ASSOCIATED PRESS

BENNINGTON, Vt. — Federal child pornography charges against a former Vermont elementary school teacher have been dismissed, but his lawyer lamented that the man had already lost his job and reputation.

John Dockum, 34, had pleaded not guilty in February to state charges on five felony counts of possession of child pornography. The state dismissed its charges, allowing federal prosecutors to review the case. He was never formally indicted, and federal prosecutors filed a motion Friday to dismiss their case, according to the Bennington Banner (http://bit.ly/N5h5Es).

    A police deposition showed there’s no evidence Dockum knew he had child pornography images on his computer, which is a necessary component of criminal possession, said Dockum’s attorney, David Silver of Bennington.

He said Dockum had visited a website that placed the 17 images that led to the charges into his computer’s temporary Internet cache.

The Bennington School District fired Dockum in February. He had taught at Monument Elementary School since 2009.

Silver called the case “a tragedy,” adding that his client was a popular teacher and has lost his job and reputation.

“I don’t know how he gets that back,” he said.”

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

Federal Crimes – Be Careful

Federal Crimes – Be Proactive

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Criminal Defense Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition Defense, OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal, International Criminal Court Defense, and US Seizure of Non-Resident, Foreign-Owned Assets. Because we have experience dealing with INTERPOL, our firm understands the inter-relationship that INTERPOL’s “Red Notice” brings to this equation.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.


Federal Prosecutors will introduce evidence of uncharged crimes at Ratigan’s federal criminal trial

July 10, 2012
Shawn Ratigan
Shawn Ratigan (credit: Keith Myers)

KansasCity.com on July 9, 2012 released the following:

“BY MARK MORRIS
The Kansas City Star

Federal prosecutors announced Monday that they plan to introduce evidence of uncharged crimes and other “bad acts” at the trial of the Rev. Shawn Ratigan in August.

Ratigan, 46, is charged with production and possession of child pornography while he was pastor of Catholic parishes in St. Joseph and the Northland.

Authorities arrested Ratigan in May 2011, five months after officials and staff at the Diocese of Kansas City-St. Joseph found hundreds of lewd images of young girls on a laptop computer that the priest had sent for servicing.

In the ensuing furor of how church officials handled the discovery, authorities charged Bishop Robert Finn and the diocese in Jackson County each with a misdemeanor count of failure to report suspicions of child abuse. A trial on those counts is scheduled for September.

Federal prosecutors said in their filing Monday that they need to present evidence of uncharged conduct to prove whether Ratigan intended to produce child pornography, knew what he was doing and had motive, such as a desire “to indulge in and satisfy a sexual interest in female children.”

Among the evidence not previously disclosed is an image of Ratigan in his underwear allegedly taken at the home of one of his purported victims.

Prosecutors also want to present evidence that Ratigan purportedly discarded or hid a removable electronic card from his cellphone while in police custody May 18, 2011.

Ratigan also allegedly visited nine websites whose addresses, which prosecutors listed in court papers, clearly suggested an unsavory interest in young girls. Those addresses were, for the most part, discovered on a computer hard drive belonging to Ratigan and turned over to police by his family the day of his arrest.

Forensic evidence also established that Ratigan allegedly made multiple inquiries to websites using a literary title — “Lolita,” from the novel by Vladimir Nabokov — that has become a common search term for child pornography, prosecutors said.

Authorities apparently have established two instances in which Ratigan allegedly obtained girls’ underwear.

Prosecutors alleged that he possessed “a minor female’s underwear in the summer of 2009.”

As for the second instance, authorities noted that someone recovered “a different pair of minor female’s underwear at defendant’s residence in the spring of 2010.”

The second incident appears to match one that has been reported previously. In a letter of concern to diocesan officials in May 2010, a Northland Catholic school principal said a parent found a pair of girls’ panties in a planter at Ratigan’s home when a group of Brownies were there to plant flowers.

And prosecutors announced that they wanted to show jurors Ratigan’s alleged Web searches for photographs of children in swimsuits and his computer bookmarks for two-way mirrors and “spy pens,” which an earlier report on the case described as “small cameras disguised to look like ballpoint pens.”

The lawyer representing Ratigan did not return a call to his office Monday. Federal public defenders in Kansas City seldom comment on their cases.”

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

Federal Crimes – Be Careful

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Criminal Defense Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition Defense, OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal, International Criminal Court Defense, and US Seizure of Non-Resident, Foreign-Owned Assets. Because we have experience dealing with INTERPOL, our firm understands the inter-relationship that INTERPOL’s “Red Notice” brings to this equation.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.


Feds warn of crackdown on Seattle gun violence

June 19, 2012

SeattlePI on June 19, 2012 released the following:

“GENE JOHNSON, Associated Press

SEATTLE (AP) — The Justice Department’s top official in Seattle promised Monday to start sending more people to federal prison for gun crimes following several tragic and random shootings in the city, including the deaths of four people at an artsy cafe.

For more than a decade, federal prosecutors have reviewed state cases of felons caught with weapons under a nationwide program called Project Safe Neighborhoods, and they’ve gone after some of the worst offenders — sending them to federal prison for longer than they would face under state law.

Seattle U.S. Attorney Jenny Durkan said her office will now prosecute all felon-in-possession gun cases in Seattle in which there is federal jurisdiction and in which the defendants would face more time federally.

“We have seen way too many shootings in the city this year,” Durkan said at a news conference. “If you bring a gun to a crime, you will do time, and you likely will do federal time.”

The federal penalties for gun crimes include up to 10 years for being a felon caught with a firearm, an automatic five-year minimum for bringing a gun to a drug deal, and a 15-year minimum for those who are caught with a gun after having three prior violent or drug-related felony convictions.

By contrast, under state law, ex-cons who are caught with a gun could face a two-year sentence if their underlying felony is considered “serious.” If the underlying felony is not considered serious — burglary, drug cases, and child pornography among others — it takes four convictions for being a felon-in-possession before the offender is sent back to prison for one year, said King County Prosecutor Dan Satterberg, who hosted the news conference Monday.

Few people realize how lenient state law is about felons who get guns, Satterberg said, and Washington state is also permissive when it comes to armed children. Children under 18 have to be convicted of illegal gun possession five times before they are sent to a state Juvenile Rehabilitation Authority facility for 15 weeks, he said.

Seattle has already seen more homicides this year — 21 — than it saw all of last year, though it remains one of the nation’s safer big cities.

On May 30, a man with a history of undiagnosed mental problems walked into a cafe in the city’s University District and opened fire, killing four people and wounding another. He then killed a woman downtown while stealing her car, and took his own life on a city street that afternoon as police moved in to arrest him.

The spree followed two unrelated, random killings. In the first, a 21-year-old culinary student who had just moved to Seattle was killed by a bullet fired from a passing car as she was walking home. In the second, a man was driving in a van with his children and his parents in broad daylight when a bullet struck him in the head. The still-unidentified shooter, who had been in an argument on the street, was aiming for someone else.

Last year, a King County deputy prosecutor specially designated to review gun cases for federal prosecution, Stephen Hobbs, looked at 200 cases. The U.S. attorney’s office wound up prosecuting 40 of those cases, and in about 50 others, Hobbs sent a letter to the defendants warning them that they would probably face federal prosecution — and a longer sentence — unless they agreed to plead guilty in state court.

In about 25 to 50 of the cases, the U.S. attorney’s office might have had jurisdiction but declined to prosecute, said spokeswoman Emily Langlie. For now, the office’s new policy of taking all cases applies only to Seattle.

Durkan, Satterberg and Seattle Mayor Mike McGinn acknowledged that solving gun violence takes more than tough prosecution. The state lacks the capacity in many cases to provide meaningful interventions in emergency mental health situations, Satterberg said, and budgetary cuts to social services have compounded that.

But there are things people can do to help, they said. They urged gun owners to keep their guns properly locked up. While Seattle police have recovered 361 guns from criminals this year, 81 others have been reported stolen in burglaries, Deputy Seattle Police Chief Nick Metz said.

They also said state laws should be changed to make penalties stiffer for felons and children who get guns illegally, and to stop gun purchases at gun shows without a background check.

Durkan urged people to call police or mental health hotlines if they’re concerned about relatives who have weapons and may be mentally ill.

“There’s more help out there than people understand,” she said.”

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

Federal Crimes – Be Careful

Federal Crimes – Be Proactive

Federal Crimes – Federal Indictment

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Criminal Defense Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition Defense, OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal, International Criminal Court Defense, and US Seizure of Non-Resident, Foreign-Owned Assets. Because we have experience dealing with INTERPOL, our firm understands the inter-relationship that INTERPOL’s “Red Notice” brings to this equation.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.


Alleged Child Porn Distributor Charged in US

June 11, 2012

ABC News on June 11, 2012 released the following:

“By SAMANTHA HENRY Associated Press

A Ukrainian man charged by federal authorities with running a worldwide child pornography distribution network has made his first appearance in a New Jersey courtroom.

The U.S. Attorney’s office says Maksym Shynkarenko (max-SEEM’ shank-AH’-rank-oh) from Kharkov, Ukraine, founded and operated a Ukraine-based child pornography website that had customers around the world and has resulted in 560 convictions of customers in the U.S.

Shynkarenko was extradited from Thailand over the weekend to face a 32-charge indictment.

A federal judge in Newark on Monday ordered him to remain in custody pending his arraignment Wednesday.

The 33-year-old Shynkarenko, wearing green prison scrubs, close-cropped hair and glasses answered a judge’s questions in English that he did understand his rights.

He has been assigned a court-appointed attorney.”

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

Federal Crimes – Be Careful

Federal Crimes – Be Proactive

Federal Crimes – Federal Indictment

Federal Crimes – Detention Hearing

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Criminal Defense Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition Defense, OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal, International Criminal Court Defense, and US Seizure of Non-Resident, Foreign-Owned Assets. Because we have experience dealing with INTERPOL, our firm understands the inter-relationship that INTERPOL’s “Red Notice” brings to this equation.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.


Former top FBI agent charged with alleged child porn distribution

May 16, 2012

CNN on May 15, 2012 released the following:

By Bill Mears

“(CNN) — A former supervisory FBI agent has been arrested and jailed on child pornography charges.

Donald Sachtleben was taken into custody and charged Monday after a nationwide undercover investigation of illegal child porn images traded over the Internet.

The 54-year-old resident of Carmel, Indiana, has pleaded not guilty and has a detention hearing in federal court Wednesday.

A federal complaint alleges 30 graphic images and video were found on Sachtleben’s laptop computer late last week when FBI agents searched his home, about 23 miles north of Indianapolis.

The arrest was a result a months-long probe, said the U.S. attorney for the Southern District of Indiana, Joseph Hogsett.

“The mission of our Project Safe Childhood initiative is to investigate and prosecute anyone found to (be) engaged in the sexual exploitation of children,” Hogsett said in a news release. “No matter who you are, you will be brought to justice if you are found guilty of such criminal behavior.”

Sachtleben is currently an Oklahoma State University visiting professor, according to his online resume. He is director of training at the school’s Center for Improvised Explosives, but all references to his work have now been removed from the university’s website. There was no indication from the school as to whether it had suspended him. Calls to the university and his Indianapolis attorneys were not immediately returned.

He had been an FBI special agent from 1983 to 2008, serving as a bomb technician. He worked on the Oklahoma City bombing and Unabomber investigations, according to his university biography.

A separate LinkedIn profile filled out by Sachtleben says he is an “accomplished investigator with more than 25 years of experience in FBI major case management, counter terrorism investigations, bombing prevention, post blast investigations and public speaking.”

According to the criminal complaint, a federal-state joint task force had been investigating an Illinois man allegedly trading child porn images as far back as September 2010. That suspect was arrested in January, and a search of his computer reportedly led to Sachtleben, who was using the e-mail name pedodave69.

According to the affidavit, an e-mail from that account was sent to the Illinois suspect last fall, along with nine images of child porn. “Saw your profile on (a file sharing network). Hope you like these and can send me some of ours (sic). I have even better ones if you like.” Prosecutors say Sachtleben sent that e-mail.

Sachtleben’s wife was interviewed by agents during the execution of the search warrant and denied any involvement with child porn. She was not taken into custody.

FBI officials in Washington had no comment on the arrest.

If convicted, Sachtleben would face up to 20 years in prison on the charge of distribution of child porn, and an additional 10 years for possession.

The Justice Department’s Project Safe Childhood initiative was launched in 2006, leading to what federal officials call a more than 40% increase in the number of cases investigated. The project’s website says 2,700 indictments were filed last year alone.
The case is U.S. v. Sachtleben (1:12-mj-316).”

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

Federal Crimes – Be Careful

Federal Crimes – Be Proactive

Federal Crimes – Federal Indictment

Federal Crimes – Detention Hearing

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Criminal Defense Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition Defense, OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal, International Criminal Court Defense, and US Seizure of Non-Resident, Foreign-Owned Assets. Because we have experience dealing with INTERPOL, our firm understands the inter-relationship that INTERPOL’s “Red Notice” brings to this equation.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.


FBI Replaces bin Laden on Ten Most Wanted List

April 10, 2012
FBI Eric Justin Toth
Eric Justin Toth. Photo from FBI.gov

Chicago Tribune on April 10, 2012 released the following:

“Jeremy Pelofsky
Reuters

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – A child pornography suspect has been placed on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted Fugitive list to replace al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, who was killed by U.S. forces last year.

Eric Justin Toth, 30, a former private school teacher, was indicted in 2008 in Maryland on one count related to producing child pornography, according to court records. Authorities found pornographic images on a camera in his possession, the FBI said.

Authorities are offering a $100,000 reward for information leading to Toth’s arrest.

There also is a sealed two-count complaint against Toth that has been filed in federal court in Washington, D.C., which charges him with possessing a video that includes an image of child pornography and transporting it across state lines, according to the FBI.

Toth may advertise himself on the Internet as a tutor or a male nanny and was believed to have lived in Arizona as recently as 2009. Prior to that he was believed to have been in Virginia, Illinois, Indiana, Wisconsin and Minnesota, the FBI said.

If convicted on the charge in Maryland, Toth would face at least 15 years in prison and as many as 30 years.

The addition to the list comes almost a year after bin Laden was killed in Pakistan by U.S. forces. The FBI said putting Toth on the list was the culmination of a lengthy process including surveying its 56 field offices for candidates and approval by top FBI officials.

Toth is the 495th person to be on the FBI’s Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list. There is another vacancy on it due to the capture of reputed mobster James “Whitey” Bulger last year.”

FBI Ten Most Wanted Eric Justin Toth

US v Eric Justin Toth – Federal Criminal Indictment

18 U.S.C. § 2251

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Douglas McNabb – McNabb Associates, P.C.’s
Federal Criminal Defense Attorneys Videos:

Federal Crimes – Be Careful

Federal Crimes – Be Proactive

Federal Crimes – Federal Indictment

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To find additional federal criminal news, please read Federal Crimes Watch Daily.

Douglas McNabb and other members of the U.S. law firm practice and write and/or report extensively on matters involving Federal Criminal Defense, INTERPOL Red Notice Removal, International Extradition and OFAC SDN Sanctions Removal.

The author of this blog is Douglas C. McNabb. Please feel free to contact him directly at mcnabb@mcnabbassociates.com or at one of the offices listed above.